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Geology and ESG Research Analysis




Metals are part of our modern lives and we must think sustainability through a process: Extraction-Integration-Recycling.






Atomic number





cerium subgroup

Occurrence / Extraction

it is found in monazite sand ((Ce,La,Th,Nd,Y)PO4) and bastnäsite ((Ce,La,Th,Nd,Y)(CO3)F) or it can also be found in Misch metal.

Extraction:  obtained in a pure form by reacting neodymium fluoride (NdF3) with calcium.


Primary applications include lasers, glass coloring and tinting, dielectrics and, most importantly, as the fundamental basis for neodymium-iron-boron (Nd2Fe14B) permanent magnets.  Neodymium magnets are the strongest permanent magnets known - Nd2Fe14B. These magnets are cheaper, lighter, and stronger than samarium-cobalt magnets.

The neodymium-based magnet is used extensively in the automotive industry with many applications including starter motors, brake systems, seat adjusters and car stereo speakers. Its largest application is in the voice coil motors used in computer disk drives. Neodymium-iron-boron (NIB) magnets are also used in audio speakers.

Neodymium has a strong absorption band centered at 580 nm, which is very close to the human eye's maximum level of sensitivity making it useful in protective lenses for welding goggles.

It is also used in CRT displays to enhance contrast between reds and greens. It is highly valued in glass manufacturing for its attractive purple coloring to glass.

Probably because of similarities to Ca2+, Nd3+ has been reported  to promote plant growth. Rare earth element compounds are frequently used in China as fertilizer.


 Neodimium is a lustrous silvery-yellow metal. It is very reactive and qickly turnishes in air and the coated formed does not protect the metal from further oxidation, so it must be stored away from contact with air. It reacts slowly with cold water and rapidly with hot.

Atomic mass:  144.2 g mol -1
Electronegativity according to Pauling:  1.14
Density:  7.0 g cm-3 
Melting point:  1010°C
Boiling point:  3067 °C
The origin of the name comes from the Greek words neos didymos meaning new twin.

Relative abundance

Neodymium is one of the most abundant of the rare earth elements. Its abundance in the Earth's crust is thought to be about 12 to 24 parts per million. That places it about 27th among the chemical elements. It is slightly less abundant than copper and zinc.

atomic mass (g.mol -1)


density (g/cm3)


Oxydation number


Melting point (°C)


Boiling point (°C)


Magnetic moment


Abundance in the Earth's crust ( ppm)



Carl Freiherr Auer von Welsbach  in 1885