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Metals are part of our modern lives and we must think sustainability through a process: Extraction-Integration-Recycling.

Dysprosium

Name

Dysprosium

Symbol

Dy

Atomic number

66

Group

HREE

Subgroup

yttrium subgroup

Occurrence / Extraction

Present in monazite and bastnasite minerals.

Extraction: first converted to dysprosium trifluoride (DyF3). The compound then reacts with calcium metal to obtain pure dysprosium.

Use


Dysprosium is most commonly used as in neodymium-iron-boron high strength permanent magnets. While it has one of the highest magnetic moments of any of the rare earths (10.6uB), this has not resulted in an ability to perform on its own as a practical alternative to neodymium compositions. It is however now an essential additive in NdFeB production. 

Dysprosium is also used to make alloys for various electrical and electronic devices (CD players). 

Metal rods (control rods) containing dysprosium are used in nuclear reactors to control the rate at which neutrons are available.

It is also used in special ceramic compositions based on BaTiO formulations.

Recent research has examined the use of dysprosium in dysprosium-iron-garnet (DyFeG) and silicon implanted with dysprosium and holmium to form donor centers.

Properties

It is a soft, lustrous, silvery metal that reacts with oxygen and water. Dysprosium is relatively unreactive at room temperatures. It does not oxidize very rapidly when exposed to the air. It does react with both dilute and concentrated acids, however. For example, it reacts with hydrochloric acid to form dysprosium trichloride.

Dysprosium comes from the Greek word for "difficult to obtain."

Atomic mass:  162.5 g.mol -1
Electronegativity according to Pauling:  1.2
Density:  8.54 g.cm-3 at 20°C
Melting point: 1409 °C
Boiling point:  2335 °C

Relative abundance

Experts estimate that no more than about 8.5 parts per million of dysprosium occur in the Earth's crust. That makes the element more common than better known elements such as bromine, tin, and arsenic. Studies of stony meteorites have found about 0.3 parts per million of dysprosium.

atomic mass (g.mol -1)

162.5

density (g/cm3)

8.5

Oxydation number

  +3

Melting point (°C)

1409

Boiling point (°C)

2335

Magnetic moment

 

Abundance in the Earth's crust ( ppm)

3.6

discovery

Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886