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Geology and ESG Research Analysis

 

           

 

Metals are part of our modern lives and we must think sustainability through a process: Extraction-Integration-Recycling.

Lutetium

Name

Lutetium

Symbol

Lu

Atomic number

71

Group

HREE

Subgroup

yttrium subgroup

Occurrence / Extraction

Extraction:  difficult: either by lutetium fluoride (LuF3) or lutetium chloride (LuCl3). An active metal, such as sodium (Na) or potassium (K) is then added to LuF3 or LuCl3 to obtain pure lutetium.

Use

It is sometimes used as a catalyst in the petroleum industry.

It is the ideal host for x-ray phosphors because it produces the densest known white material, lutetium tantalate (LuTaO4).

It is utilized as a dopant in matching lattice parameters of certain substrate garnet crystals, such as indium-gallium-garnet (IGG) crystals due its lack of a magnetic moment.

Properties


Lutetium is a silvery white metal that is quite soft and ductile. Lutetium reacts slowly with water and dissolves in acids. It also has the smallest metallic radius of any rare earth. It is perhaps the least naturally abundant of the lanthanides and one of the most expensive.

Atomic mass: 174.97  g.mol -1
Electronegativity according to Pauling:  1.2
Density:  9.84 g.cm-3 at 20°C
Melting point: 1656 °C
Boiling point:  3315 °C
 
The origin of the name comes from the Greek word Lutetia meaning Paris.

Relative abundance

Lutetium is thought to be very rare in the Earth's crust. It occurs to the extent of about 0.3 to 1.7 parts per million. That still makes it somewhat more common than better known elements such as iodine, silver, and mercury.

atomic mass (g.mol -1)

174.97

density (g/cm3)

9.84

Oxydation number

 +3

Melting point (°C)

1656

Boiling point (°C)

3315

Magnetic moment

 

Abundance in the Earth's crust ( ppm)

0.3

discovery

Georges Urbain (FR) and independently by Carl Freiherr Auer von Welsbach (AT) in 1907.