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Geology and ESG Research Analysis

 

           

 

Metals are part of our modern lives and we must think sustainability through a process: Extraction-Integration-Recycling.

Scandium (associated metal)

Name

Scandium

Symbol

Sc

Atomic number

21

Group

 

Subgroup

 

Occurrence / Extraction

The most important ores are the minerals thortveitite and wolframite. Also found in monazite, bastnasite, and gadolinite.

Extraction:  Pure scandium metal can be made by reacting scandium fluoride (ScF3) with another active metal, such as calcium or zinc

Use


Scandium mainly used in ceramics, lasers, phosphors and crystal. Scandium oxide is suitable for the high index component of UV, AR (Anti-Reflection) and bandpass coatings due to its high index value, transparency, and layer hardness make High damage thresholds have been reported for combinations with silicon dioxide or magnesium fluoride for use in AR. .

Scandium are widely used in making Scandium-Aluminium alloy. Scandium metal is lighter than most other metals. It is also resistant to corrosion (rusting) and has a high melting point. These properties make scandium alloys especially desirable for use in sporting equipment, such as baseball bats, lacrosse sticks, and bicycle frames. .

Scandium alloys are also used in specialized lamps. The presence of scandium produces light that is very similar to that of natural sunlight.

Properties

Scandium metal is a silvery-white solid with a slight pink or yellow tint when exposed to air. Scandium is similar to the rare earth elements chemically. It reacts readily with acids, but does not react easily with oxygen in the air.

Atomic mass: 44.96  g.mol -1
Electronegativity according to Pauling:  1.3
Density:  2.99 g.cm-3 at 20°C
Melting point: 1539 °C
Boiling point:  2832 °C
 
The origin of the name comes from the Latin word Scandia meaning Scandinavia.

Relative abundance

The abundance of scandium is thought to be about 5 to 6 parts per million in the Earth's crust. Interestingly, the element seems to be much more abundant in the sun and some stars than it is on Earth.

atomic mass (g.mol -1)

44.96

density (g/cm3)

2.99

Oxydation number

 +3

Melting point (°C)

1539

Boiling point (°C)

2832

Magnetic moment

 

Abundance in the Earth's crust ( ppm)

5

discovery

Lars Fredrik Nilson (SE) in 1879